The present study have performed the cluster analysis to identify the emerging research themes in this domain through VOSviewer that helps to analyze the network of published documents. Based on published papers, the author can analyse the interconnected network structure with the use of cluster analysis. Each cluster denote the specific and defined theme of the research in this domain.

Money, Credit, and Security Markets

  1. Though lagging indicators are still used by many governments and institutions, they also pose the risk of guiding incorrect decision-making due to erroneous assumptions about present-day economics.
  2. As a result, they can signal the effects of current financial conditions as well as changes in the economy.
  3. The industrial production report, released monthly by the Federal Reserve, reports changes in the production of factories, mines, and utilities in the U.S.
  4. Some of the main indicators of the overall health of the economy are gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, unemployment, money supply, consumer spending, retail sales, and existing home sales.

For such, a conceptual exploration of the study is conducted on how pursuing “Sustainable Energy Development” (SED) that can increase the GPI results. As the study’s outcome, according to the GPI, SED will have a significant advantage in implementing energy and environment policy and will also contribute to the advancement of social and economic well-being. Coscieme et al. (2020a) explored the connection between the unconditional growth of GDP and SDG. The author considered that policy coherence for sustainable development should lessen the damaging effects of cyclic manufacturing on the ecosystem. Thus, the services considered free of charge in the GDP model should be valued as a component of society. Generally, such services include ecosystem services and a myriad of “economic” functions like rainfall and carbon sequestration.

Federal Reserve Interest Rate Announcements and Meeting Minutes

Individual consumer consumption drives businesses, business investments promote growth, and government spending maintains social welfare. Positive net exports represent a trade surplus, while negative net exports represent a trade deficit. Nominal interest rates are influenced by inflation, so like inflation, they tend to be procyclical and a coincident economic indicator.

Economy: What It Is, Types of Economies, Economic Indicators

Economic socialism is a system of production in which there is limited or hybrid private ownership of the means of production. Prices, profits, and losses are not the determining factors used to establish who engages in the production, what to produce and how to produce it. Assuming humans have unlimited wants within a world of limited means, economists analyze how resources are allocated for production, distribution, and consumption. Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader.

Understanding Economics

The gross domestic product of the United States reached $27.94 trillion in 2023. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total value of all of the completed goods and services produced by an economy during a period of one year. Clearly, principles of psychology and marketing influence microeconomics. In such a system, the government owns industries deemed essential on behalf of the consumers who use them. The nations were sorted according to the quantity of publications, and Fig. 3 showed where the top ten countries with the highest number of publications are listed originated.

Many types of sales are examples of coincident indicators because they peak or bottom out as the economy does. Lagging indicators are useless for prediction; the value of construction completed, for example, is outdated, limefx for the main economic effects of the construction occurred earlier when the plans were made and construction actually carried on. It depicts pink circles and nodes, wherein five articles were identified, as shown in Fig.

The information collected can be used to forecast the overall business confidence within the economy and helps determine if it shows an expansionary or contractionary outlook. In addition, many economic indicators have a benchmark set, whether by a government agency or other entity. Consider how the Federal Reserve’s target rate of inflation is usually 2%. The Federal Reserve then enacts policies based on CPI measurements to achieve this target.

An economic indicator is a piece of economic data, usually of macroeconomic scale, that is used by analysts to interpret current or future investment possibilities. These indicators also help to judge the overall health of an economy. While there are many different economic indicators, specific pieces of data released by the government and non-profit organizations have become widely followed. Such indicators include but aren’t limited to the Consumer Price Index (CPI), gross domestic product (GDP), or unemployment figures. In its simplest form, an indicator could be considered any piece of information that can help an investor decipher what is going on in the economy. The U.S. economy is essentially a living thing where, at any given moment, there are billions of moving parts—some acting, others reacting.

CPI is a lagging indicator, and the U.S. relies on it heavily as one of the best indicators of inflation. This is because changes in inflation can spur the Federal Reserve to make changes to its monetary policy. On the other hand, an upmarket could suggest that earnings estimates are up and therefore the economy as a whole may be thriving. Economic indicators, when boiled down to a single number, can also fail to capture complex realities. For example, consider all of the variables that contribute to the unemployment rate. This can include a wide range of influences, from macroeconomic conditions to minor details like weather patterns.

Other types of articles, such as books, book chapters, conference articles, notes, and editorials, are excluded to maintain the quality of the review. All the non-English language documents are excluded to avoid translation confusion; hence, only the English language articles are considered for the final review. Table 1 provides a thorough summary of the prior review studies about the happiness economy and its contribution to public policy and sustainable development. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows; A thorough survey of the literature on the happiness economy is provided in Sect.

It is usually an indication that the economy is getting better when the number of new claims decline over a period of months. Understanding economic indicators and their implications is paramount for grasping the complexities of the economy and making sound decisions whether in policymaking, investment, or business strategy. It’s the net difference between a country’s value of imports and exports, and shows whether there is a trade surplus or a trade deficit. A trade surplus is generally desirable, and shows that there is more money coming into the country than leaving.

Diener and Seligman (2018) propounded the ‘Beyond Money’ concept in 2004. In response to the shortcomings of GDP and economic measures, other quality-of-life indicators, such as health and education, have been created. The national account of well-being has been proposed as a common path to provide societies with an overall quality of life metric. While measuring the subjective well-being of people, the authors reasoned a societal indicator of the quality of life. In this article, the authors have proposed an economy of well-being model by combining subjective and objective measures to convince policymakers and academicians to enact policies that enhance human welfare. 6, and only five papers on empirical and review investigations were found.